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Winter Semester
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Objectives of the course (preferably expressed in terms of learning outcomes and competences):  Specific knowledge focused on the molecular structure, function and bioenergetics of the photosynthetic apparatus. Impact of environmental changes on photosynthesis.

Course contents: Photosynthesis and bioenergetics. Molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. Light absorption and fluorescence. Energy transfer mechanisms. Linear and cyclic electron transfer. Light harvesting complex (LHCII). Photosystem II (PSII). Cytochrom b6f.  Photosystem I (PSI). State transitions (state 1→ state 2). Photophosphorylation and chemiosmosis. Calvin cycle. Fluorescence induction measurements and photosynthetic efficiency. Molecular biology of the photosynthetic system. Organization of the chloroplast genome. Regulation of chloroplast protein synthesis. Protein transport into chloroplasts. Functional assembly of photosynthetic chlorophyll/protein complexes. Chloroplast photodevelopment. Photoreceptors and signal transduction chains for the photosynthetic apparatus synthesis. Chlorophyll biosynthesis. Carotenoid biosynthesis. Photoadaptation. Photorespiration. Photosynthesis in C3, C4 and CAM plants. Photoinhibition. Mehler reaction. Photosynthesis in bacteria. Impact of global environmental changes on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. Biotechnological applications.

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The Department of Biology of the University of Crete was established in 1981 and is today an internationally recognized center for contemporary university education and research in the field of Biology.

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