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E Semester
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Objectives of the course (preferably expressed in terms of learning outcomes and competences):  Acquisition of a general knowledge in the field of Immunology, including cellular, molecular, medical Immunology and Immunogenetics.

Course contents:  Cells of the immune system: Description of the differentiation pathways of myeloid cells and B lymphocytes. Organs of the immune system: Structural and functional analysis of primary and secondary immune organs. Differentiation of T lymphocytes: Maturation and differentiation of T cells in thymic microenvironments. Positive and negative selection of T cells.  Biochemical and genetic analysis of immunoglobulins: Definition of isotypes, allotypes and idiotypes. Description of structural characteristics and function of the different immunoglobulin isotypes. Description of the immunoglobulin genes and mechanisms for polymorphism generation. Transplantation Immunology/ Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC): Historical background on the discovery of MHC. Description of MHC in mouse and human. Analysis of class I and class II MHC molecules. Protein and gene structure. Humoral Immunity: Cells involved in humoral immunity, antigen presentation, primary and secondary immune response. Cell mediated immunity: Cells involved in cellular immunity, antigen presentation, primary and secondary immune response. Allergies: Gell-Coombs classification of allergies, mechanisms and examples of the different types of allergies. T cell receptor (TCR): Description of TCRαβ and TCRγδ, mechanisms of polymorphism generation. Description of immune synapse. Immune suppression: Tsuppressors/Tegulatory. The cellular and biochemical nature of suppression. Idiotypes: Description of the idiotypic network and the idiotypic regulatory mechanisms. Immune tolerance: Mechanisms regulating the development and breakage of immune tolerance. Autoimmunity- Immunodeficiency: Diseases caused by mal-functioning of the immune system. Cancer Immunology: immune surveillance, mechanisms evoked by malignant cells to immune escape.

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The Department of Biology of the University of Crete was established in 1981 and is today an internationally recognized center for contemporary university education and research in the field of Biology.

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